Pectins, gelatin, agar-agar, agaroid, alginates, and other thickeners. Properties and types.

Raw materials used in the production of confectionery can be divided into primary and secondary.

The main raw material forms a specific structure of confectionery products with the necessary mechanical and rheological properties. The main raw materials are sugar, molasses, cocoa beans, nuts, fruit and berry semi-finished products, wheat flour, starch, fats, which account for 90% of all raw materials used.

Additional raw materials, without changing their rheological properties, give confectionery products a spice, aesthetic appearance, improve the structure, and lengthen the shelf life. Additional raw materials include gelling agents, food acids and dyes, flavoring agents, emulsifiers, foaming agents, water-retaining additives, etc.

Thickeners and gelling agents - these are substances used in small quantities, they increase the viscosity of food products, create a jelly-like structure of marmalade products and candies with jelly bodies, and also stabilize the foam structure of pastilles and whipped candy bodies. A clear separation between thickeners and gelling agents is not always possible, as there are substances that have both thickening and gelling properties to varying degrees. Some thickeners can form strong gels under certain conditions.

Thickeners include: modified starch, carboxymethyl cellulose E466, locust bean gum E410, guar gum E412, xanthan gum E415, arabic gum E414. These products are substances with a very high degree of water binding, hydrocolloids with a strong thickening effect and varying levels of stabilizing activity.

Gelling agents: agar-agar E406, animal gelatin, carrageenan E407, pectin E440, sodium alginate E401. These substances are also hydrocolloids with a long polymer chain, have a high gelling activity in excess of their thickening activity, and also have a different level of stabilizing activity.

Most thickeners and gelling agents are polysaccharides. The exception is the gelling agent gelatin, which is of a protein nature.

Pectins E 440 is a group of high molecular weight polysaccharides that are part of cell walls and intercellular formations together with cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin.

Pectins - edible plant fibers, which sorb and remove toxic metabolic products, radionuclides, heavy metals, slags from the body; normalize the work of the gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system; lower blood glucose levels.

The largest amount of pectin is found in fruits and roots. In the food industry, pectin is obtained from apple pomace, beet pulp and sunflower baskets. Citrus pectins are produced from pomace of citrus fruits: oranges, lemons, etc.

Pectin substances include: pectic acids - residues of galacturonic acid linked by a-1,4-glycosidic bond in long chains, they are slightly soluble in water, do not have a gelatinous ability; pectates - salts of pectic acid; pectic acids are pectic acids in which a small part of the carboxyl groups is esterified with methyl alcohol; pectinates - salts of pectin acids; protopectin - pectic acids,in which a significant part of the carboxyl groups is esterified with methyl alcohol. It is protopectin that has a gelling ability.

The gelling ability of pectin depends on the molecular weight (20 thousand - 50 thousand), as well as on the number of methyl groups that make up the molecule, and the content of free carboxyl groups and their substitution with metals. Depending on the degree of esterification of carboxyl groups, low-esterification and high-esterification of pectins are distinguished, obtained from the feedstock either by acidic or alkaline extraction, or by enzymatic cleavage. The best pectins are obtained from citrus and apple peels, while pectins from beet pulp are of lower quality.

Highly esterified (highly methoxylated) pectin is used in the confectionery industry mainly for the preparation of fruit products (marmalade, pastille, jelly, jams) flavored with natural fruit ingredients or synthetic flavors. Pectin with a high content of methoxyl groups is a good stabilizer for foamy confectionery: marshmallows, marshmallows, whipped candy masses.

Highly esterified pectins are used as a gelling agent in the production of fruit juices, ice cream, canned fish and mayonnaise.

Low-esterified pectins are used in the manufacture of vegetable and fruit jellies, pates and jellies. This type of pectin, which does not require the addition of acid for gelation, is used to obtain jellies and fillings (for example, jelly products with mint or cinnamon flavor), in which the low pH range required for the gelation of highly methoxylated pectin is unacceptable.

Low esterification (low methoxylated) pectin at low concentrations can impart a thixotropic texture to confectionery fillings. At higher concentrations, cold gelling can be obtained if calcium ions diffuse into the filling.

For the production of jelly confectionery products of various assortments, the consumption of pectin ranges from 8 kg for citrus fruit to 26 kg for beet pectin per 1 ton of finished product.

Compared to other gelling agents commonly used in the preparation of confectionery, pectin requires strict adherence to recipe and manufacturing parameters. On the other hand, pectin provides benefits such as very good texture and mouthfeel; in addition, pectin, due to the relatively fast and controlled gelation, is advantageous to use in a modern continuous technological process.

Various types of pectin of foreign manufacturers are widely represented on the market of raw materials for the confectionery industry. About 80% of foreign pectin is pectin from large-fruited citrus fruits.

The main producer of citrus pectin is the American firm Gercules Inc. , which has about 150 subsidiaries in different countries of the world. The largest enterprise Kopenhagen pectin fabric (Denmark) produces about 20 types of pectins under the GENU trademark for various areas of the food industry. Apple pectin is produced mainly in England, France, Austria, Switzerland, Germany, Mexico, Italy. The largest companies for the production of pectin from dried apple pomace are Grill & Grossman, Grinstedt, Herbsrtreit & Fox KG, Cesalpina.

Gelatin (from Lat. gelatus - frozen, frozen) is a protein product, which is a mixture of linear polypeptides with different molecular weights of animal origin.

Gelatin is made from bones, tendons, cartilage and other things by prolonged boiling with water. In this case, collagen, which is part of the connective tissue, turns into glutin.

The resulting solution is evaporated, clarified and cooled to jelly, which is cut into pieces and dried. Produce leaf gelatin and crushed.

Ready dry gelatin - tasteless, odorless, transparent, almost colorless or slightly yellow. It swells strongly in cold water and dilute acids, but does not dissolve. The swollen gelatin dissolves when heated, forming a sticky solution, which solidifies into a jelly.

Gelatin is widely used in the manufacture of jelly, brawn, ice cream, for the production of jelly, marmalade and other confectionery, as well as in cooking. In addition, it is used in beer and wine brewing technologies to clarify them.

Typical dosages of gelatin are 0.5-8% by weight of the product. In food production, various brands of gelatins are used, which is due to the type of product and the technological features of its production.

The use of gelatin in the kitchen
1) Jellies, fruit jellies (including wine or champagne-based jellies).

2) Finely sliced ​​meat + spices + gelatin in a tight package (film, foil) + heat treatment (boil or bake in the oven. The output gives a wonderful natural analogue of sausage, meatloaf, etc.).

3) Grease the cold cuts on the table with diluted gelatin and it will not dry out and wind up all evening (useful for the New Year holidays).

4) Cottage cheese and / or cream and / or sour cream whipped with sugar and fruit and berry additives with the addition of gelatin - a wonderful and simple dessert recipe.

5) Fruits laid on the surface of the cake, filled with juice or wine with gelatin = simple and very beautiful cake design.

6) Adding diluted gelatin to mayonnaise for flaky salads will help you soak the salad, but on the festive table it does not become limp and blurry, but looks nice and neat (again, a tip for the New Year's table).

7) Gelatin + icing sugar + lemon juice = mastic for modeling cake figures.

Gelatin is often used as a preservative and is added to vegetable marinades; in winter, such a blank looks very original.


Modified starch.

The starch gelling process is quite lengthy, and it is used to make jelly candy bodies.

Modified starch is used in small enterprises, as it requires a large amount of water (10–12 times) to form jelly, which must then be removed.

The Research Institute of the Confectionery Industry has developed the production of modified pea starch. Sweets made using pea raw materials do not differ at all from traditional ones in recipe (developed using agar) neither in taste, nor in color, nor in smell.
Moreover, the price of Russian material is 20 times lower than that of foreign material.

Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), or sodium salt of CMC, used as a consistency stabilizer.

The pure product is a white or creamy fibrous granule or powder that is hygroscopic, odorless, stable, soluble in water, and insoluble in acid, methanol, ethanol, benzene, chloroform, and other organic solvents.
CMC is not exposed to bright light animal or vegetable oils.

Carboxymethyl cellulose is used in only a few food industries. It is used in the production of ice cream, confectionery (jelly, mousse, marmalade, jams, fruit and berry fillings, cream, pasta, baked goods, pasta), sauces and meat products, it is part of the means for encapsulation and tableting.

The advantages of CMC over other stabilizers are its effectiveness at low concentrations, the ability to significantly improve the consistency, significantly reduce the effect of thermal changes, and full compatibility with all components of the products, including other hydrocolloids.

CMC has the following characteristics:
easily soluble in water, thickens all aqueous solutions;
viscosity does not change for a long time;
retains water;
has stable stabilizing and binding properties;
exhibits a synergistic effect with protein biopolymers (casein, soy protein);
forms a transparent and durable film;
does not dissolve in organic solvents, oils and fats; is odorless and tasteless, physiologically harmless and recognized as a safe food additive.

The domestic firm "Giord" produces various food additives using CMC: "Blanose", "Aquasorb A-500", "Stabilan SM" - sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (E 466).

Aquasorb has an increased water-holding capacity: one part of it is capable of binding 100 parts of water. These additives find their application not only in the composition of dough pieces, they can also be effectively used for thickening and heat resistance of fruit fillings, for preventing sugar glaze from chocolate, for stabilizing meringues and marshmallows.

The use of "Stabilan" allows:
get a product with a thick consistency, including sugar-free or low-sugar;
preserve the structure and appearance of the finished product during storage;
avoid moisture separation.

Algae extracts.

In red algae, the main carbohydrates are polysaccharides, which are structurally similar to amylopectin.

A group of scientists from Norway, USA and Russia have proposed a new nomenclature for polysaccharides of various red seaweeds. Polysaccharides containing only D-galactose residues were called carrageenans, and those containing L-galactose were called agaranes. If one of the galactose residues is substituted in the polysaccharides by the 3,6-anhydrogalactose residue, then the names are replaced by "carrageenose" and "agarose", respectively. Agarose includes agar-agar and agaroid.

Agar agar obtained from the most expensive seaweed (Anfeltia, Helldium, Gracillaria, Euheum).

Back in the early 1990s. In Russia, the production of agar-agar gelling agent was curtailed, which is now almost entirely purchased abroad.

The main manufacturers of agar-agar are the following companies: Volf & Olsen, Algas Marinas SA, B&V, Setexam, Instrimpex consfit import & export company, etc. The main supplies of agar-agar are carried out from countries such as Germany, Chile, Spain, Italy , Morocco, China, etc.

Agar Is the strongest gelling agent.
The ability of agar to form jellies decreases when heated in the presence of acids.
Aqueous agar solution forms jellies when cooled to 45 * C. The melting point of the water jelly is 80–90 * С.

Agar is used in the confectionery industry in the production of marmalade, jelly, in the production of meat and fish jellies, in the manufacture of ice cream, where it prevents the formation of ice crystals, as well as in the clarification of juices.

Jellies prepared on the basis of agar-agar, unlike all other gelling agents, are characterized by a glassy fracture.

The use of agar in the food industry is not limited, and its amount added to food products is determined by the formulations and standards for these products.

Agar agar is insoluble in cold water. It dissolves completely only at temperatures from 95 to 100 degrees. The hot solution is clear and limited in viscosity. When cooled to temperatures of 35-40 degrees, it becomes a clean and strong gel, which is thermally reversible.

When heated to 85-95 degrees, it again becomes a liquid solution, again turning into a gel at 35-40 degrees.

Because of these interesting properties, agar-agar is successfully used in the production of confectionery (marmalade, marshmallow, chewing candies, marshmallows, fillings, soufflé), dietary products (jam, confiture), pharmaceutical products.

Agar is a vegetarian product. Agar agar contains zero calories. It removes toxins and toxins from the body, removes harmful substances from the liver, improving its work.

Marmalade, marshmallows and other sweets prepared on the basis of agar help to lose weight or at least not think about the connection between excess candy and excess weight: agar is absolutely not digested, it swells in the intestines and creates a feeling of satiety, and a deceived stomach works faster.

The approximate dosage in confectionery products is 1-1.2% by weight of the finished product. Depending on the content of the basic substance, the gelling ability of agar, or the strength of the gel (concentration 1.5%), can vary from 500 to 930 g / cm at 20 ° C according to Nikon. The gelling ability determines the type of agar: 600, 700, 800, 900.

Agaroid (Black Sea agar) is obtained from phyllo flora growing in the Black Sea.

Like agar, Agaroid is poorly soluble in cold water, in hot water it forms a colloidal solution, when cooled, a jelly of a protracted consistency is formed.
The gelling ability of agaroid is 2-3 times lower than that of agar.

The jellies obtained with the use of agaroid have a lingering consistency and do not have the glassy fracture characteristic of agar.

The gelation temperature of jellies on agaroid is significantly higher than that of jellies prepared using agar.

Also, agaroid forms jellies with a weaker water-holding capacity, therefore, it has a reduced resistance to drying and sugaring.

In the food industry, agaroid finds a similar application to agar.

Carrageenans are obtained by water extraction from several types of red algae.

The widespread use of carrageenans in the food industry is due to their unique stabilizing and sealing properties, they improve the structure of the product, increase the yield of the finished product, give elasticity and resilience, and resistance to syneresis.

These properties of carrageenans allow use them in the production of cooked sausages, frankfurters and small sausages, ham sausages, whole muscle products from pork and beef. Depending on the type of raw material, the formulation of the produced product, the ratio of muscle, adipose and connective tissue, the level of use of non-meat ingredients, the dosage of carrageenans in meat products can be 0.2–2 kg per 100 kg of unsalted raw materials.

Thanks to all these properties, carrageenan has long been widely used in the food industry in the production of dairy (chocolate milk, sorbets, cheese spreads, whipped cream, etc.), meat (meat in jelly, sausages, canned food, etc.) and fish food, seasonings, soft drinks, bakery (bread dough, donuts, fruit muffins, icing, meringues) and confectionery.

The main advantages of this type of food stabilizers are ease of use, the ability to form gels in a very wide pH range and with a low dry matter content, as well as the thermal reversibility of the resulting gels (provided that the dry matter content in products is low). Simply put, this means that when cooled after heating, the product will return to the consistency prior to heating.

Carrageenans are widely used as an astringent in puddings and fruit yoghurts, diet margarines and ice cream sundaes. Carrageenans are used to clarify beer and soak fabrics; It is added to a wide variety of products: cat and dog food, pill wafers, toilet soap and shampoo.

Carrageenans turn liquids into creams or clear jellies, and give chocolate drinks a viscous flavor.

In addition, thanks to carrageenans, we do not see ice crystals on frozen food. In the USA and the countries of Southeast Asia, this substance is even added to schnitzels and steaks to make a piece of meat seem fluffy and airy.

The presence of carrageenans in food is indicated by the “E407” label found on the packaging.

The type of algae affects the type and properties of the carrageenan obtained, which depend on the polysaccharide content

Carrageenan, derived from the red seaweed Eucheuma cottonii, is intended to be used as a gelling agent in liquid jelly desserts. This type of carrageenan gives a clear colloidal solution, forms a transparent gel and can form a elastic gel with locust bean gum.

It is also used in the meat-processing industry, increasing the yield of finished meat products.

Carrageenan is also obtained from the Irish moss (chondrus) - Chundrus crispus (L.), which grows on the northwest coast of Ireland and the American state of Massachusetts. In Ireland, algae are harvested in the fall, and in America in the summer.

In terms of chemical composition, chondrus is close to agar and contains 55–80% polysaccharides-carrageenans. The main ones are a-, b- and g-carrageenans, differing in the amount of 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose.

In addition, Irish moss, or chondrus, contains about 10% protein, is rich in halogen salts (iodine, bromine, chlorine), calcium carbonate. Unlike agar, Irish moss is characterized by its high sulfur content.
A carrageenan called furcellaran is obtained from the Baltic seaweed furcellaria. The structural formula of furcellaran is similar to that of carrageenans. Although furcellaran contains less sulfur, it has all the properties of carrageenan. The strength of the furcellaran jelly is less than that of agar, but more than that of agaroid.

The production of carrageenans as an important raw material for medical, food and some other industries is developed mainly in the USA, France, Canada, England, Sweden, Norway, Ireland, Portugal, the Philippines and some other countries. The world consumption of carrageenans is more than 14,000 tons per year and is increasing by 1-3% annually.

Agar-agar, carrageenans and pectins are food additives similar in purpose, but limitedly interchangeable.

Due to the lower gelling ability of carrageenans and pectins, they require several times more of them than agar-agar to obtain a confection with predetermined properties.

Among all the polysaccharides obtained from seaweed, the largest share falls on alginates - sodium, potassium, calcium salts of alginic acid, extracted from brown algae.

The high demand for alginates is explained by the fact that they are widely used in a number of industries and industries.

Alginates are polysaccharides consisting of D-mannuronic and L-guluronic acid residues. Alginates have been studied in humans. As a result of studies, no negative effect of alginates on the absorption of calcium from the diet was revealed.

According to FAO / WHO experts, the permissible daily intake of alginates is up to 50 mg per 1 kg of human body weight, which is significantly higher than the dose that can be ingested with food.

The main property of alginates is the ability to form especially strong colloidal solutions, characterized by acid resistance.

Alginate solutions are tasteless, almost colorless and odorless.
They do not coagulate when heated and retain their properties when cooled, frozen and subsequently defrosted. Therefore, alginates are most widely used in the food industry as gelling, gelling, emulsifying, stabilizing and water-retaining components.

The addition of 0.1–0.2% sodium alginate to sauces, mayonnaises, creams improves whipping, uniformity, storage stability and protects these products from delamination.

The introduction of 0.1–0.15% sodium alginate into preserves and jams prevents them from becoming sugared. Alginates are introduced into the composition of marmalades, jellies, and various aspic dishes.

Their addition to the composition of various drinks prevents sedimentation. Sodium alginate can also be used as an opacifier in the production of soft drinks.

Dry powdered sodium alginate is used to accelerate the dissolution of dry powdery and briquetted food products (instant coffee and tea, powdered milk, jelly, etc.).

Alginates are used for the preparation of shaped products - analogs of fish fillets, fruits, etc., are widely used for the preparation of granular capsules containing fluid food products.

Aqueous solutions of salts of alginic acid are used to freeze fillets of meat, fish and marine invertebrates.

Over the past decades, the consumption of alginate for the preparation of ice cream has grown especially rapidly, to which it imparts a delicate texture and significantly increases storage stability.

I also read that agar-agar contains a lot of iodine. That is, for people with impaired thyroid function in terms of an excess of iodine, it may not be very good, but for almost everyone else, on the contrary, it is good.

How much agar and how often do you use?

That's right, not every day! And not so much, 10 grams per 1 kg of the finished product, which you eat for several days!

In such cases, compensating products must be taken and nothing will happen. And keep track of GI and product compatibility

And to deprive yourself of a variety of products, which are each valuable and useful in its own way, is not worth it.

In this regard, nutrition according to Michel Montignac is closer to me. For example, he allows you to eat a little "illegal" product with a large GI, but immediately, to compensate, offers to seize all this disgrace with a bowl of green salad. It's ok
NATALICA2009 Based on my rather modest experience, I will say that I know about pectin.
The technological documentation is. of course, and the exact dosages, and the percentage by weight, and technology .... Only these calculations are of little use to a particular kitchen and a bowl of berries that need to be processed. Why? Yes, because we do not have a factory laboratory where the initial acidity of raw materials, the amount and composition of sugars will be determined. included in it, as well as that pectin. which is already contained in them (in apples, for example). Therefore, let me tell you the general principles of working with pectin, and you will experimentally find the optimal proportions for yourself. With reference to your pectin (you know how many of them are different! Each manufacturer, importer, packer ...)

1. Pectin is always sold in its pure form, there is no sugar in it. This can be determined visually and by taste.
2. The amount of sugar in your pectin jam is completely indifferent - sugar does not participate in the gelation process. You can make jam. sterilize it and store it rolled up for a long time, and there will not be a single gram of sugar there. so the proportions of raw material: sugar are set based on personal preference.
3. A portion of pectin must be soaked to swell. Or in non-acidic juice or in water (cold, warm, but not hot). Approximately 1:20 by weight. It should swell at room temperature for half an hour or an hour. It is possible and longer, it is not critical.
4. Boil the raw materials with sugar to the consistency that you think is necessary and then add the pectin to the boiling mass, stirring vigorously (as we cook jelly in general). If the pectin solution is introduced immediately, then it will begin to jellify the still boiling mass and you will have 2 ways out: or cook, but with a strong danger of burning. or turn it off half-baked and worry that it will turn sour. So let it boil as much as necessary. and then thicken it. Boil with pectin after boiling for another 5-10 minutes and that's enough.
5. For 2 kg of berries and 1 kg of sugar, I would take, for a start, 4 tablespoons of dry pectin. But it will turn out to be such a cool jam, you need to pry it with a knife and spread it on white bread. If you need a thinner, then less than 2-3 tablespoons. Density. I will repeat. depends on many factors. it is impossible to say "how much" unambiguously. In any case, we focus on the total weight of the product. and not on the amount of sugar in it.

now the most important question: why. actually put the pectin? And without it, you can cook jam. I will list the benefits.
1. Different consistency of jam. It is very pleasant to eat.
2. It is not necessary to boil the raw material for a long time. to get the required density, it means we will save more vitamins. The taste is more natural, too, because little was cooked.
3. Reducing evaporation and losses. associated with it, we get a large number of blanks.
4. We get the enriched product. Pectin has wonderful properties to heal the body (a lot has been written about this. I will not repeat myself), so why not make the preparations even more useful?

Aunt Besya
, Hairpin is right. For little money, pectin cannot be. It was only written and replaced by either cheap synthetic analogs. or banal gelatin. FYa all the same I tend to the version with gelatin. because as soon as this infection can give mold for 3 days ... Synthetics would have lasted.
Listen. why won't you cook with agar? Stop chasing this pectin, take agar and boil it for health! such jams are obtained! Thick, aromatic. a little sweet!

Quote: Hairpin

I just pour a teaspoon of apple pectin into a cup, pour it in water, stirring for an hour and a half, then add sugar to taste and drink. Simultaneously imagining how toxins are adsorbed from my body.

So if you have pectin, and you doubt its quality, pour warm water and stir... If you get jelly, everything is fine, but if the water remains water ...

, you inattentively read Hairpin's post. but she repeated to you 2 times: stir! Both gelatin and agar. and pectin in this respect are the same - if not stirring from time to time. then he himself will not swell evenly. Only the top layer of powder. and the bottom will remain unchanged.
To avoid lumps, next time mix water into the powder with a fork and then stir for a few minutes. interfere. interfere. Then mix with "approaches" For an hour you should get well ... such a porridge of semolina. but transparent ... perfectly uniform and without lumps. It means that the pectin was dissolved correctly, it will gel you all right and there is no need to filter it.
In my blog I am definitely. I invite you to chat about everything in the world, but if you are interested in the medicinal and dietary properties of pectin. then it is better to tell you about him Alexandra
Here is her blog:
On the basis of pectin and agar, effective diets and, in general, a whole concept of a healthy diet have been developed. Talk to her - the vast experience of an intelligent, thoughtful and purposeful person will be colossally interesting to you!
I don’t know what magic words Shpilka spoke at the other end of the connection, but after yesterday’s conversation, I succeeded! : flowers: Probably scared ...

means so ... as I understand it, I used to try to dilute pectin either in room temperature (cold) water or very hot 98 C. Today the water was 50 C. But I think the secret is mixing !!! For an hour, I every 10 minutes. mixed my mass ... and in the end, a homogeneous jelly! URAAAAAAAAAAAAAA !!!!!Hairpin,huge THANKS for your support !!!!!! and I don't know what else was there ... (I mean magic) ...

here are my pictures:

Image pectin 004.jpg
Pectins, gelatin, agar-agar, agaroid, alginates, and other thickeners.
Image pectin 005.jpg
Pectins, gelatin, agar-agar, agaroid, alginates, and other thickeners.
Image pectin 006.jpg
Pectins, gelatin, agar-agar, agaroid, alginates, and other thickeners.
and now every 10 minutes:

Image pectin 007.jpg
Pectins, gelatin, agar-agar, agaroid, alginates, and other thickeners.
Image pectin 008.jpg
Pectins, gelatin, agar-agar, agaroid, alginates, and other thickeners.
Image pectin 009.jpg
Pectins, gelatin, agar-agar, agaroid, alginates, and other thickeners.
the first 10 minutes there were lumps, but then they gradually began to dissolve:

Image pectin 010.jpg
Pectins, gelatin, agar-agar, agaroid, alginates, and other thickeners.
Image pectin 011.jpg
Pectins, gelatin, agar-agar, agaroid, alginates, and other thickeners.
Image pectin 012.jpg
Pectins, gelatin, agar-agar, agaroid, alginates, and other thickeners.
after 30 minutes of periodic stirring, the mass became almost homogeneous and resembled a thick jelly:

Image pectin 013.jpg
Pectins, gelatin, agar-agar, agaroid, alginates, and other thickeners.
Image pectin 014.jpg
Pectins, gelatin, agar-agar, agaroid, alginates, and other thickeners.
After 1 hour, the pectin is all gone, there are no pieces or grains !!! I'm happy!!!

How grateful I am to Tortyzhka and Shpilka for helping me understand my mistakes. It's just that before I poured pectin with water, stirred it, of course not in the same way as now and left it to swell ... I thought that pectin would work, like gelatin ... but no!


Now it will be necessary to check for solidification.
Thank you very much for the information. I read about agar-agar, which until then I considered only a product for gelling ... Here's what I learned from here 🔗

"Today's issue is dedicated to agar-agar, a popular product from the assortment of our online store.) I am publishing excerpts from Elena Stoyanova's book Agar-agar. A hunger trap, presented to me by a wonderful person (Galina, thank you!).
Agar agar is a prebiotic. It serves as food for the beneficial intestinal microflora. Microorganisms feed on agar-agar, processing it into vitamins that are more than useful for us, including group B, amino acids (proteins) and other waste products. At the same time, beneficial microorganisms reproduce regularly on tasty and healthy agar-agar food, making a powerful competition to the pathogenic flora and suppressing it.
Agar-agar is a factor enhancing immunity.
Agar-agar helps to lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood.
Agar-agar is a factor in achieving normal and, importantly, more even blood glucose levels.
Agar-agar is a factor of normalization of increased acidity of gastric juice (envelops the walls of the stomach).
Agar-agar is a mild, non-addictive laxative.
At the same time, in contrast to insoluble fiber, agar-agar not only does not cause increased gas formation in the intestine, but also helps to fight it.
Agar-agar removes salts of heavy metals and toxic substances.
Agar-agar is a source of highly assimilable substances of iron, potassium, calcium, zinc, magnesium, phosphorus, manganese, as well as folate.
However, it does not cause the washing out of mineral salts from the body.
It has no contraindications, of course, if you do not exceed the recommended doses (3-4 g per day) and consume a sufficient amount of liquid.
According to the testimony of diabetologist and nutritionist, MD Pierre Niss: “The soluble fiber of agar-agar allows you to eat less without suffering from hunger! Moreover, the gel that forms in the stomach captures some of the fats and carbohydrates from food, reducing the absorption of calories, reducing the total cholesterol level, as well as leveling the level of glycemia and eliminating attacks of weakness and hunger. "
The main and most effective method of application is in hot drinks and meals.
The minimum temperature for dissolving agar-agar in liquid is 80-85 C. Therefore, the powder is either stirred in a cold liquid, brought to a boil and simmered for 1 minute,
either fall asleep in liquid shortly before boiling and boil for another minute,
or just whip it up with the coolest boiling water (water, tea, vegetable or other decoction).
Then drink it slowly while hot.
Agar-agar has a neutral taste that does not interrupt the taste of food.
Gelling occurs at 40-45 C. The procedure for using agar-agar in the form of a hot drink: 10-20 minutes before meals or as a first course, moreover hot, is fundamentally important for the purposes of weight loss and recovery: gelling must occur directly in the stomach ...
Dosage: maximum 3-4 grams per day and always 1 gram per 250 ml of liquid at one dose; under no circumstances exceed! The effect of reducing hunger does not increase, the price of the issue is indigestion).
1 tbsp. l. (15 ml, no slide) = 8 g agar agar (measured with agar from our online store)
Thus, 10-20 minutes after taking agar-agar, a person needs less food for saturation and nutritional satisfaction, and the period of feeling of satiety after such a meal is also longer.
Important: agar-agar helps not to overeat, but food when taking agar-agar must be sufficient, complete and balanced.
No more than 3 g per day, maximum 4 g per day. And drink 2-2.5 liters of liquid a day. "

Such is the parsley. A useful thing, too.
Summer resident
This is for a moment. Any starch is harmful as a carbohydrate. They get fat from him.

A tasteless, amorphous white powder, insoluble in cold water. Under the microscope, you can see that it is a granular powder; when the starch powder is squeezed in the hand, it emits a characteristic "crunch" caused by the friction of the particles.

It swells (dissolves) in hot water, forming a colloidal solution - a paste; with iodine solution gives a blue color. In water, with the addition of acid (H2SO4, diluted, etc.) as a catalyst, it gradually hydrolyzes with a decrease in molecular weight, up to glucose.

Starch molecules are not uniform in size. Starch is a mixture of linear and branched macromolecules.

Under the action of enzymes or heating with acids, it undergoes hydrolysis. Equation: (C6H10O5) n + nH2O — H2SO4 → nC6H12O6.

Qualitative reactions:

* Starch, unlike glucose, does not give a silver mirror reaction.
* Like sucrose, does not reduce copper (II) hydroxide.
* Interaction with iodine (blue color).

[edit] Biosynthesis

Some of the glucose produced in green plants during photosynthesis turns into starch:

6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2

nC6H12O6 (glucose) → (C6H10O5) n + nH2O

In general, this can be written as 6nCO2 + 5nH2O → (C6H10O5) n 6nO2.

Starch accumulates in tubers, fruits, and plant seeds as a reserve food. Thus, potato tubers contain up to 24% starch, wheat grains - up to 64%, rice - 75%, corn - 70%.

Starch modification

In industry, the conversion of starch into glucose (saccharification process) occurs by boiling it for several hours with dilute sulfuric acid (the catalytic effect of sulfuric acid on the saccharification of starch was discovered in 1811 by K.S. Kirchhoff). In order to remove sulfuric acid from the resulting solution, chalk is added to it, obtaining insoluble calcium sulfate from sulfuric acid. The latter is filtered off and the material is evaporated. It turns out a thick sweet mass - starch syrup, which contains, in addition to glucose, a significant amount of other starch hydrolysis products.

Molasses is used for the preparation of confectionery and for a variety of technical purposes.

If you want to get pure glucose, then boiling starch takes longer than a more complete conversion of it into glucose is achieved. The solution obtained after neutralization and filtration is concentrated until glucose crystals begin to precipitate from it. Also, at present, starch hydrolysis is carried out enzymatically, using alpha-amylase to obtain dextrins of various lengths, and glucoamylase - for their further hydrolysis to obtain glucose.

When dry starch is heated to 200-250 ° C, it partially decomposes and a mixture of polysaccharides (dextrin and others) less complex than starch is obtained.

The physical change produces a starch with a high moisture holding capacity, which in turn gives the final product the desired consistency. Modified starch has nothing to do with genetically modified organisms, since it is not altered at the genetic level.
Hairpin, it's good, of course, that you have me! But I still don't have pectin on my farm. Alas! Therefore, I am a pure theorist in using it.
Honestly, I'm not familiar with the Broken Glass cake recipe
If I needed to thicken the sour cream ... Why not gelatin? As I understand it. what do you need a cold cake to eat? Then the gelatin will hold as cute ...
If the cake is not eaten cold. then here. probably. agar would be appropriate.I fully support Lyulek - agar sets into lumps at high temperature.
What did I do.
1. I wouldn't cool sour cream to a very cold state.
2. The agar would be soaked and heated in a little more water. so that the solution is thinner.
3. Drive the agar mixture into the sour cream at very high speed and very vigorously. The agar would have poured in a very thin stream. Most likely, I would have asked the assistant to pour thinly. and I would actively beat and stir at the same time.
Why do I say so? Are we pouring boiling syrup into proteins? In theory, the protein should also curl up and brew in lumps. Or the heavy syrup just gathers in a layer at the bottom. But we are taking certain actions. so that it doesn't happen? And it doesn't.
The difference between sour cream and protein mass is. that when whipping with agar, it will not puff up, but, on the contrary, will liquefy. I think so ... Therefore, everything will not take long. In order not to "plant"
Actually, try the half portion, huh? It's a pity half a kilo ...
How can you kill the smell and taste of agar? I bought from a saleswoman at the local market, a 10 gram sachet. In addition to the expiration date, there is nothing on the bag, neither the manufacturer, nor any other data. It cost about $ 1. Nearby lay a packet of "agar-agar" of local production, there the composition was written: lactose, pectin.
In general, how to distinguish real agar? Should he give a rather sharp and unpleasant aftertaste? I could not interrupt him with vanilla essence or liqueur.
jenyasan , well, how can there be agar from a "local producer" if it is a product of processing seaweed ?! We can only talk about the local PACKAGER!
Again, agar is agar and pectin is pectin. Same. if the beets had "carrots" written on them.
Agar does not give a sharp and unpleasant aftertaste. probably he is mixed with something. or is it some kind of agaroid (poorly purified agar). In general, buying from hands without a label and imprint is very dangerous, VERY!
Read the "theoretical part" of the thread written Roma - maybe then you "classify" your product by composition. yet again. if you liked the soufflé by its consistency, then some gelling agent is present there ...
How to fight off the smell? I think you can rinse your powder a few times in cold water. That is, you fall asleep in a glass, shake it with cold water, as soon as it settles a little, you drain the water and pour the next one ... Maybe at least a little taste will go away ... I don't know how to help anymore ...
If there are still Japanese friends. ask them to send or bring. Japan is a coastal country. there are more algae. than you
Good agar by weight at a wholesale specialized firm is sold for $ 25-30 per 1 kg. Packers, of course, get impudent (I judge even in Moscow)
Agar looks like gelatin-light yellow or creamy translucent crystals. the smell is weak. but specific. After adding vanillin and cooling, the foreign smell disappears.
Cake, that's why I wrote it in quotes because it is local
The one that I took, according to the saleswoman, was Russian. But my grandmother said it in two. I read the Admin materiel. But I didn't understand how to fight off the smell. In all other respects, everything suits me in him.
Actually, I have a very sharp nose, my husband laughs that I had to go to the customs office to work.
There are many Japanese acquaintances, but it is inconvenient for me to load them with agar somehow
I'll have to spin my husband at sea to buy an authentic

What do you use in protein cream as a flavoring agent? And if you make it without agar, will it be very different?
Well, it's really inconvenient to "load"! How much of this agar do you need? A kilo is enough for half your life! Straight overstrained, poor fellows
Although, on the other hand, it’s not bad to go out to sea "for agar" with my husband ...
I flavored protein custard only with vanilla-creamy flavoring - exclusively from personal preference for him. such a soft "sweet" smell, versatile. Sell ​​both liquid and powder. Good packing "Terezapak" -Moscow. Both dry and liquid are equally good.
without agar protein is very good, but! Agar gives it some stability over time .. That is, you can cook a larger portion and use it longer without compromising quality.
Dear members of the forum, please help, I torture my pectin all day, but still no marmalade. And I boiled it, and did not boil, and added sugar, and did not add, and poured lemon juice, and left it to swell with regular stirring, and for 200 ml of liquid I already poured 4 teaspoons of pectin, and put it in the cold, and did not put it - the result is one - very tasty ... jelly.

Ideally, you really want to get a slightly sweet marmalade without sugar (with fructose or honey). I took pectin in Kiev, Apple Food Center powder.

Who got the marmalade, tell me the technology step by step, please, is it necessary to bring to a boil, boil for a few minutes, add sugar / citric acid, in what quantities ?? Any other secrets?
For marmalade, pectin alone is not enough, you also need agar-agar.
Recipes and observation of marmalade in this thread Soufflé, marmalade.

I did not notice any changes in the properties of agar - mine is three years old.

Indian Spices has a website. Sometimes I just go there - I want so many things at once ...

From ideas - they sell kalonge seeds, which are so great to sprinkle on oriental flatbreads and unsweetened BUNS
And there is okra in the freezes - I really like to add it to a vegetable stew and just fry it with onions and spices

There are wonderful spice mixes - garam masala (Shtrenochka often uses it) and red barbecue mix
Well, and tea masala - which is added to tea for taste and harmony
More canned coconut milk, chickpeas ...

In general, I'll shut up, otherwise I'll list the whole site
Maybe sour? Agar doesn't react very much to acid ...
well then hold on. I continue.

In Indian spices, they sell my favorite whole grain wheat flour Altai Health in packages of 5 and 1 kg (they also have other whole grain flour).
There is English chickpea flour and French couscous

A bunch of different rare and just healthy oils:
ghee butter (ghee), which is considered one of the healthiest in Indian cuisine
amaranth oil, avocado (there is even an avocado with an orange), mustard, sesame, grape seed oil, watermelon, apricot, peanut, cedar, sea buckthorn,
There are cheap almonds, almond petals, pistachios and coconut flakes, mango puree ...
Candied ginger, dark brown muscovado sugar and all sorts of halva - with pistachios, chocolate, almonds and even no sugar
Different types of tea, including my favorite oolongs
Curry paste (red, yellow, green) - I cooked delicious chicken with yellow
Whole cardamom and cinnamon sticks
I apologize in advance if I wrote in the wrong topic. If-anything redirect this seemed the most appropriate. In general, they brought me a bunch of apples and I decided to make jam in a bread maker, but in all the recipes there is a strange substance pectin. I went around almost everything to the shops and it turned out that there is no such thing in our city (the city is small, of course I was looking badly). Then I read on the Internet what it is. What can replace it? Has anyone tried to make jam in the stove replacing it and if so what proportions please share the recipe! I read that it seems like starch is possible, but what kind? and how much should you put it?
There is Zhelfix, Confiture, Varenka - for jams and confiture. The composition contains pectin. Look for it on sale. In departments where spices are seasonings.
By the way, I found a jaundice hurray!))) And figured out everything ...)

If there are a lot of apples, then it is better to make jam in a saucepan. Apples have a lot of their own pectin, just boil them a little, then break them with a blender and cook according to the principle like here And sugar for 1 kg. apples are enough 600-700 grams. The main thing is to remove the liquid from the apples.

The jam will be delicious! Now I'm making such a jam from apples
And now, in a bread maker, I made apples from apples so tastefully and it takes a little time, I just threw the apples, the sugar, cut the lemon and quite a bit of this zhelfix. It is a pity that it turns out not enough ...
Admin, you have a wonderful rich topic and a lot of useful information in one place. I will definitely read it again. (I just very rarely go to this forum - just read about marmalade ...)
I would also add (unless I saw it somewhere and it has already been written about him) - such will be noticed. a thickener / gelling agent such as galactomannan or konjac gum. It has almost zero calories and gives less such specific "snotty" as guar or xanthan gum. It is very favorable for the nutrition of people with overweight problems or gastrointestinal diseases.
And here is the topic where the emulsifiers are - I did not find lecithin there (probably, it is written about it in the subtopic about eggs).
May I ask the hostess girls?
We can't find agar, unfortunately, but I want to taste the current and try the cake, and something else ... and there is agar, I guess that you can replace with gelatin, but I don't even know the ratio ... I don't know, or rather not when I haven't seen how agar looks like, etc.
If 5 grams of agar agar, how much gelatin is needed?
And yet, what is the difference in the finished product, what is the difference, taste, concentration ...

A short reference for those buying agar-agar.
For a long time I used Italian agar purchased from "Seregina" and was very pleased, only the amount of recommended agar for jelly was too high, instead of a teaspoon of agar for 250 grams of liquid, for making regular jelly I take 1 teaspoon (4g) for 1 liter of liquid!
The other day I bought agar in the "Indian Spices" store on Sukharevka. They have a price in an online store 90re for 50 grams, and in an offline store - 75!
Conclusion - the gelling properties of Chilean and Italian agar are completely identical! Only the color and smell differ - the Italian is lighter and, oddly enough, odorous, and the Chilean is darker, but almost no smell, however, the smell of both agar is lost in the product, since the concentration is scanty.
Pectins, gelatin, agar-agar, agaroid, alginates, and other thickeners. Pectins, gelatin, agar-agar, agaroid, alginates, and other thickeners. Pectins, gelatin, agar-agar, agaroid, alginates, and other thickeners.
Now Seregina's packaging looks different.
I bought agar from Seregina by mail, packing the din into one from the site, and the composition contains agar-agar (E406), I wonder how to understand it, that's why I wrote out that I thought that without E
Quote: korobushka

I bought agar from Seregina by mail, packing the din into one from the site, and the composition contains agar-agar (E406), I wonder how to understand it, that's why I wrote out that I thought that without E
The letter E denotes any food additive (flavoring, aromatic, consistency-changing, and so on ...). This is just for that. To make it easier to classify. there is no crime in this ...
Please tell me how to use pectin correctly. How far can it be heat treated?
it is better to introduce pectin at the very end of the process, or in the form of a solution, or mixed with sugar. Just bring the fruit mass with pectin to a boil and turn off the heat.
Pectin does not like long heating and even if there is a large amount of acid in the jam (sour fruits), it can irreversibly liquefy.
When I cook marmalade on pectin, then, before introducing pectin, I mix it with a small amount of sugar, then when the puree has reached 60-70 degrees, I introduce pectin, then I add more sugar, and I introduce it in small portions, because pectin is not loves temperature changes, then I bring the pectin syrup to a temperature of 105 degrees, remove it from the heat and introduce a little solution of lim. to-you, if the fruit is not sour and the marmalade turns out to be good and dense. If the pectin is not brought to the desired temperature, then it will not give the necessary thickening and water will appear on the surface of the marmalade, and if digested, it will become liquid
Hello girls. I use citrus pectin. buy by weight. First I mix it with sugar, then add water and leave it to swell for 1 hour and then put it on the cook. 1 st. spoon of pectin 1 glass of sugar and a glass of water, cook for about 45 minutes cool marmalade turns out

On the package with APPLE pectin, instructions are given - mix the required amount of pectin with a small amount of sugar (1-2 tablespoons), stir and pour the mixture into hot, boiling fruit jam, etc., stir quickly to combine with fruit mass and remove from heat - do not boil!
The amount of pectin depends on the amount of sugar in the jam - more sugar, less pectin.
By the way, there are pectins that do not require sugar at all. Here they are introduced into jam - the most hassle, but you can make marmalade or jam no sugar at all (the fruits themselves also contain sugar. of course ..) for example, with sweeteners.
can help girls here)))))))))). twice made bird's milk on agar and a yoghurt layer on the cake and both times the mixture did not congeal in jelly, but was in the form of a thick pudding ((((((((. What could it be. Did everything according to the recipe. maybe bad agar or could it be something else? thanks
Sweetsnau , and according to what recipe they did give a link - then you can think about it.
Girls! Tell me!
I understand that pequitine can be replaced with felfix or agar. If the recipe is: NH 4gr pectin + 10g sugar, then how much felfix or agar to replace?

Read the consumption of these ingredients on the packaging and how to use them - they are very different
Tanya, thank you! I'll try to count it based on the number of all the ingredients.
Lots of questions!
1. How much to cook jam with pectin in a bread maker? the attached recipe says, say 1h 40m (it just says "pectin"). on a sachet with apple pectin "the optimal boiling time is 3 min." what to think?
2. What is the ratio of apple and citrus pectins? (to replace one with another in the recipe) search engines give nothing
PS who will share the link, what kind of "shop near Seregina" selling pectin?

All recipes

New recipe

© Mcooker: best recipes.

map of site

We advise you to read:

Selection and operation of bread makers